ken-2, kenǝ-, keni-, kenu-;

    ken-2, kenǝ-, keni-, kenu-;
    English meaning: to rub, scrape off; ashes
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “kratzen, schaben, reiben”
    Note: various with conservative extensions
    Material: I. Leichte basis: Gk. κόνις, -ιος f. “dust, ash” (-is-stem, compare κονίσσαλος “cloud of dust”, κεκόνισ-ται Theokr., κονί̄ω “bestäube” from *κονισ-ι̯ω, Hom. κονίη “dust, sand, ash” from κονισᾱ); ἀκονῑτί “unbesiegbar” (Jũthner Gl. 29, 76); Maybe zero grade Lat. cinis -eris m. f. “ashes” < Arm. ačiun “ash”; Alb. (*aski) hi “ash” [common Alb. ski- > hi- phonetic mutation].
    Note: Root ken-2, kenǝ-, keni-, kenu- : “to rub, scrape off; ashes” must have come from zero grade of an extended Root ü̆s-, therefrom azd-, azg(h)- : “to burn” into ü̆sk-en with the suffix -en. This assumption is proved by Alb.Gheg (*askini) hini “ash” [common Alb. ski- > hiphonetic mutation]. ablaut. with Lat. cinis, -eris f. m. “ash” (from *cenis), Dimin. cinis-culus (κόνις, cinis are probably originally ein neutr. is-stem gewesen, and have erst einzelsprachlich because of nom. auf -is Geschlechtswechsel erlitten). II. Schwere basis kenǝ-, knē-: Att. κνῆν, 3. sg. present κνῆ, later κνή-θω “ scrape, scratch; itch”, κνηθμός, κνησμός, κνησμόνη “das itchiness”, κνῆσις “das Reiben, scratch; itchiness”, κνῆσμα “Abschabsel”, κνηστήρ ‘schabmesser”, κνῆστις “ rasper” and “backbone, spine” and “Brennessel”; Att. Κονίσαλος “demon of Geschlechtstriebes” (auf ein ar. *knüthsame meaning will Gũntert KZ. 45, 200 Av. xnaąϑaitī “name a Pairika” zurũckfũhren). O.H.G. nuoen, M.H.G. nũejen “ through Schaben glätten, genau zusammenfũgen”, O.H.G. hnuo, nuoa “Fuge, Nut”, O.S. hnōa “Fuge, Nut, schmale Ritze”, M.H.G. nuot “Zusammenfũgung zweier Bretter, Fuge”, Ger. Nut, Nute. M.Ir. cnáïm “consume, gnaw “; ēcna “Verzehren” (Stokes KZ. 41, 385) is quite doubtful; M.Ir. cnüim m. “bone” (*knō-mi-s “Benagtes”), Welsh cnaw, pl. cnofein. 1. d-extension kenēd-, kenǝ-d-: Gk. κνώδων, -οντος pl. “die den the hilt of a sword gegen die blade abgrenzenden Zähne or hook”, sg. ‘sword”, κνώδαξ, -ᾱκος m. “Achsenzapfen” (“*tooth”), κνώδαλον “(bissiges =) wild, gefährliches animal” (seit Hom.), zero grade κναδάλλεται κνήθεται Hes., with e the ersten syllable (as κίναιδος, κινώπετον, see under) κίναδος Sicil. “fox”, Att. as swearword, by Hes., θηρίον, ὄφις”; Maybe Alb. kunadhe “marten” Lith. kándu, ką́sti (*konǝd-) “bite”, kándis “Milbe”, kañdis “morsel, mouthful” (secondary second accent) ką́snis “morsel, mouthful”, Ltv. kuôžu, kuôdu, kuôst “bite, sharp sein, divide” (after Persson Beitr. 808 also kńadas “Nachbleibsel beim Getreidereinigen; Reizen, Necken, with secondary softening); Church Slavic kusъ “frustum”, Serb. kus “morsel, mouthful, Stũck”, Church Slavic kusaju, kusati, Serb. kûsüm, kúsati (etc.) “bite” (schleiftonig as from light root form); O.Bulg. čę stь “part” (*kn̥d-ti-); without s-extension Pol. kądek “morsel, mouthful, Stũck, gobbet “. Maybe Alb. çast “moment”: O.C.S.: čę stь “part” [f i] 2. Labial extensions: kenē-p-: Gk. κνώψ, -πός “bissiges animal”, κνωπεύς ἄρκτος Hes.; κῐνώπετον (*kenōp-) “animal, esp. Schlangen and anderes poisonous worms “. kenē-bh-, kenǝ-bh-: Gk. κνήφη “ scabies, mange “, with anlaut. s- σκνήφη Hes. “Brennessel”; κνάπτω (γνάπτω) ‘scratch, kratze auf, drum; tumble; tear, rend, mangle, rend, lacerate”, κνάφος “Weberkarde, wherewith the Walker das Tuch aufkratzt; Marterwerkzeug”, κναφεύς “fuller, Tuchscherer”, κνάφαλον (κνέφαλλον Eur., γνόφαλλον Alkaios) “abgekratzte Wollflocken; pillow, cushion” (die Auffassung from κναφ- as hybridization from κνεφ- and καφ- =κn̥φ- is incredible, s. Persson Beitr. 139); Gaul. GN Cnabetius (: Run. gen. Hnab[ī]das), O.Ir. cnai “vellus” (from dem Welsh), Welsh cnaif “Fließ”, cneifio “tondere”, nCorn. (?) kneu, Bret. kreoñ, Vannes kaneo “Fließ”; different J. Loth RC 43, 408 f.; Run. gen. Hnab(i)das (IE *knǝbhetó s “mutilated”), O.Ice. hnafa, preterit hnōf “cut, clip”, hnefi m. “fist, sword”, M.H.G. neve “fist”, PN O.E. Hnæf, O.H.G. Hnabi; geminated O.S. nappa “ nip, pinch, to pick to pieces “ and die j-verbs O.Ice. hneppa “nip, pinch, clamp, press”, O.E. (once)hnæppan “hit, gegen etwas bump, poke”; remain far off though O.E. hnappian “ drowse “, O.H.G. hnaffezen ds., Ger. dial. na(p)fezen ds. (Wissmann nom. postverb. 183); Lith. kniebiù, kniẽbti “leise nip, pinch”; Ltv. knǜ b-ju, -u, -t “picken, pluck”, Iter. knübüt; Lith. knab-ù, -e ́ti ‘schälen (Kartoffeln under likewise)”, knabùs “langfingerig, diebisch, skilful”, knabénti, knebénti “(auf)picken”, knimbù, -aũ, knìbti “pluck, klauben”, Ltv. knibêt, knibinât Iter. “klauben” (-ni- kann zero grade to -nĕ- sein); whether the consecutive words previously from knib- gefolgerten ablaut after the i-row have or partly old Reste the i-variant kenei-bhare, is not certainly; Lith. knỹburiuoti “with irgendeiner Hand- or Fingerarbeit beschäftigt sein”, Ltv. kniêb-ju, -u, -t “ pinch, tweak, nip “, Iter. knaibît. 3. s-extension kene-s-, k(e)nē-s-: O.Ind. redupl. ki-knasa- m. “parts of zerriebenen Korns, Schrot, semolina “; Gk. κνέωρος, -ον “Nesselart” (probably from *κνη[σ]ορος); Goth. hnasqus ‘soft, fine” (from Kleidern; originally either “ through Reiben or Knistern soft gemacht” or ‘soft as gekratzte wool”), O.E. hnesce “tender, soft, weak”, O.H.G. [h]nascōn “naschen (*abknipsen), tidbit genießen”; Ltv. knùosti, knuost “with dem bill, beak, neb in Gefieder rupfen”. compare from the i-basis kenei-s-: Lith. knisù etc., see under. III. i-basis keni-, kenǝ-i: 1. base of -w-stem Gk. κόνις, Lat. cinis, see above; Gk. ἀπο-, ἐκ-, δια-κναίω “zerschabe, grind, pulverize, reibe auf under likewise” (seems *knǝi̯ -ṓ with after ἔκναι-σα, κναί-σω bewahrtem i); in addition Gk. κίναιδος “ obscene “, actually “pruriens”, grown from an adv. auf -δόν as βάδος “Marsch” from βαδόν adv. 2. Dental extensions: k(e)nē̆ i-d-: Gk. κνίζω (Fut. κνί̆δω) “ scrape, scratch, reiae” (*κνιδι̯ω), κνισμός “itchiness, Sinnenkitzel”, κνίσμα “das Abgeschabte, Abgekniffene, shred, gobbet “; κνί̄δη “Brennessel”; M.Ir. cned “wound” (*knidü), in addition Ir. Welsh cnes ‘skin” (*knid-tü); O.Ice. hnīta (hneit) “an etwas anstoßen”, hneita (*hnaitjan) “bump, poke, beleidigen”, hnita, -aða “nieten”, O.E. hnītan “bump, poke, prick “, hnitol (M.L.G. netel) ‘stößig, cornipetus”, gehnǣ st n. “Zusammenstoß, fight, struggle”, O.S. of-hnītan “tear away”; Ltv. kniẽdêt “nieten” (as O.Ice. hnita); Ltv. knidêt “itch, grovel, truckle, creep, sich bewegen”; besides from a root form auf t: Ltv. knìest, 3. present knìeš preterit knìete “itch”, kniẽtêt ds. Under the imagining of kratzenden, stechenden Geruches are anreihbar: Hom. κνί̄ση “Opferduft, Fettdampf, fume, smoke” (*κνῑδ-σ-ᾱ, compare Lat. lixa : liquor, Lith. tamsà : O.Ind. tamas-; in die ă-Decl. ũbergefũhrt Att. κνῖσᾰ); Lat. nīdor (*cnīdōs) m. “Bratenduft, vapor, vapor, fume, smoke”; O.Ice. hniss n. ‘smell, odor, ekelhafter Geschmack beim food, eating” (: hnīta; compare Goth. stigqan “bump, poke”: O.E. O.H.G. stincan ‘stink”). 3. Labial extensions: Gk. κνί̄ψ, acc. pl. κνῖπας “an ant kind, die Honig or Feigen annagt; under the Rinde lebendes insect”, with anlaut. s- σκνί̄ψ “ small Holzwurm”, κνῑπός, σκνῑπός “knauserig”, σκνί̄πτω, σκενί̄πτω, οκηνί̄πτω “kneife”; κνίφεα κνίδας Hes., κνίφων (see in addition also *gen-, gneibh- “ to press together “); M.Du. nipen st. and schw. V. (Dutch nijpen) “ pinch, nip, press, anrũhren, grasp “, M.Eng. nīpin “press” (Gmc. -p[p]-, compare:) O.Ice. hnippa “bump, poke, stecken”, hnippask “quarrel, squabble”, M.Eng. nippen “nip, pinch, clamp “, Eng. nip, nd. Dutch nippen “nippen”, Ger. bO.Ir. nipfen, nipfeln “nippen”; nd. nibbelen “abbeißen”; perhaps Lith. knimbù under likewise (see above under kenē-bh-), if with old i-vocalism. 4. s-extension: Lith. knisù, knìsti “wũhlen, dig”, Ltv. knisis, knislis ‘small mosquito “. IV. u-basis kenu-, kneu-: 1. Gk. κνό(F)ος, κνοῦς “das knarrende Reiben of Rades in the Radachse; Larm the Fũße beim Marschieren”, κνύ̄ω ‘scratch light”, κνῦμα “the scratch, light Anpochen”, κνύος n. “ scabies “, κνύ ἐλάχιστον Hes.; O.Ice. hnøggva, hnǫgg (and weak hnyggja) “bump, poke” (originally “rub, scratch, scrape”) = O.H.G. hniuwan, M.H.G. niuwen “zerstoßen, zerquetschen” (O.E. hnygelan, Plur. “Abschnitzel” from *hnuvilan-?); further with the meaning “ penurious “ (compare schäbig : schaben) O.Ice. hnøggr “concise, penurious, economical “, O.E. hnēaw “ penurious, knauserig”, M.L.G. nouwe “eng, narrow, tight, slim, slender, thin, concise, small, genau”, M.H.G. nou, nouwe “eng, genau, painstaking “, Ger. genau; Ltv. knūdu and knūstu , Inf. knūt and knūst, preterit knūdu “itch” (d(h)- and st-present, compare with wurzelhaft behandeltem -d- also knudêt ds.); Pol. knować “ dismember, ästeln”, knowie ‘strohsplitter”? (see also Brũckner KZ. 45, 313 because of Slav. *kъnъ ‘stem”, *kъńiga “book”, whereat different Berneker 663, 664). 2. Dental extensions: With d: Gk. κνῦζα, κνῦσα “ scabies “, κνυζοῦμαι “kratze mich”; about κόνυζα see under; O.E. hnot “abgeschabt, naked, bald, bleak, kurzgeschoren”. With dh: Gk. κνύθος ἄκανθα μικρά Hes., κνυθόν σμικρόν Hes.; O.Ice. hnjōða, hnauð “bump, poke, hit, nieten”, O.H.G. pi-hnēotan “befestigen”, M.H.G. niet m. f. “breit geschlagener nail, Niet”, nieten “nieten”; O.Ice. hnyðia “tool zum Schlagen or Klopfen”; Nor. dial. nuddast “abgestumpft become” (with s- Swe. dial. snudda “gentle touch”, Falk- Torp under nudd); O.H.G. hnotōn ‘shake”, M.H.G. notten ‘sich hin and her bewegen”, M.Eng. nodden, Eng. nod “nicken”; O.Ice. hnoss f. “Kleinоd” (“gehämmert”), O.E. hnossian “knock”. About Ltv. knudêt etc. see above 1. With t: presumably Goth. hnuÞō, hnutō “σκόλοψ”, O.Ice. hnūðr “ shaft, pole, picket, pole”, Ltv. knute, knutele “dũnne shaft, pole” (or Lw. from Ger. Knũttel?). 3. g-extensions: Gk. κόνυζα, σκόνυζα, κνῦζα “ strong-smelling plant, Erigeron viscosumL.” (if -ζ- from -γι̯- ; also -δι̯- is equally possible; zur Geruchsbed. compare above κνῖσα, nīdor); O.Ice. hnykr (*hnuki-) “ fetidness “ (besides fnykr, snykr, knykr, nykr ds., wobl late Anlautswechselformen). 4. Labial extensions: With IE b: Goth. dis-hniupan “tear”, dishnupnan “zerrissen become”, O.S. niupa “nip, pinch”, O.E. ü-hnēopan “abpflũcken”; with intensive consonant-Doppelung Nor. dial. nuppa “pluck”, O.E. hnoppian “pluck”, Dan. M.L.G. noppe “Wollflocke, tuft of wool, Hechelhede”; with IE bh: O.Ice. hnȳfill “kurzes, abgestumpftes horn, lamb with solchen Hörnern”, N.Ger. nobbe, nubbe “Wollflocke”, M.H.G. noppe, поp “Tuchflocke” (rather Lw. from M.L.G. noppe). 5. s-extension: Ltv. knaũsis ‘small mosquito “ (as knisis, k̨nislis from the i-basis).
    References: WP. I 392 ff., WH. I 217 f., II 166 f.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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  • ā̆s-, therefrom azd-, azg(h)- —     ā̆s , therefrom azd , azg(h)     English meaning: to burn     Deutsche Übersetzung: “brennen, glũhen”     Material: O.Ind. üsa ḥ “ cinder, dust “ (about ásita ḥ “ black “ s. *n̥si “ dirt color, dark color “); Lat. üra “ altar; hence… …   Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary

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